The New York Asian Film Foundation and Film at Lincoln Center (FLC) have announced the second round of programming and award honorees for the 23rd edition of the New York Asian Film Festival (NYAFF), taking place July 12–22 at FLC, and from July 22–28 at the SVA Theatre, with special weekend screenings and one-night-only programming from July 13–15, 18–21, and 23–25 at LOOK Cinemas W57, as well as a special collaborative presentation of hit films at the Korean Cultural Center New York on July 13–27.

Read our first programming announcement for the 2024 New York Asian Film Festival! 

This year’s NYAFF features more than 90 new and classic titles from China, South Korea, Japan, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Thailand, Indonesia, Mongolia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Vietnam, and beyond, with nine world premieres, 12 international premieres, and 38 North American premieres.  

NYAFF is thrilled to unveil the eight titles nominated for this year’s Uncaged Award for Best Feature Film Competition, which shines a spotlight on filmmakers whose singular visions deserve to be internationally heralded. This section is a celebration of passion, imagination, and the willingness to take risks: These are the filmmakers to watch, the ones who are bending and rewriting the rules and creating something new and exciting.

The nominated directors will join us in New York for the announcement of the Uncaged winners, selected by a jury composed of young, prominent, and up-and-coming figures from the film industry bridging Asia and the United States: Tony Bui (director, Three Seasons), Shao-yi Chen (producer, Screenworks Asia), Shaina Magdayao (actress), Felix Tsang (Sales & Acquisitions Manager, Golden Scene), and more.  

The Uncaged Award nominees, made by talented first- and second-time directors and other unsung auteurs who have flown under the radar of the international awards and festival circuit, are: The Escaping Man (Wang Yichun, China), a satire of class, ambition, and moral turpitude that tells the story of a lovelorn ex-con, a kidnapping gone wrong, and an unusual boy caught in a storm of happenstance; Frankenstein Father (Choi Jea-young, South Korea), a morality play about identity and survival that explores the ramifications of perfectionism and the age-old conundrum of nature vs. nurture; How to Make Millions Before Grandma Dies (Pat Boonnitipat, Thailand), a pan-Asian box-office smash starring superstar Billkin as a slacker who quits his job to become his grandma’s caregiver—whether she likes it or not; Ichiko (Akihiro Toda, Japan), an enigmatic, Rashomon-like puzzle box that gradually unravels the shocking reality of its central character; Snow in Midsummer (Chong Keat Aun, Malaysia/Taiwan/Singapore), a meditation on a tragedy that still scars the soul of a nation; Suffocating Love (Liao Ming-yi, Taiwan), a dizzying, disorienting plunge into the rabbit hole of modern romance shot entirely on an iPhone; Trouble Girl (Chin Chia-Hua, Taiwan), a tumultuous drama exploring the complex bonds between a mother and her neurodiverse daughter (Audrey Lin in an award-winning role); and Women from Rote Island (Jeremias Nyangoen, Indonesia), a genre-defying piece that is part ethnographic doc, part sexual-violence drama, and part stinging indictment of the patriarchal structures that make life a horror story for many women. 

As previously announced, the festival will honor a handful of Asia’s brightest luminaries with this year’s NYAFF awards. These stars will bring glitz and glamor to our stage with in-person Q&A sessions.

Honorees include Hong Kong’s own renaissance man, Nicholas Tse, a triple threat and then some—actor, singer, songwriter, entrepreneur, and even a TV chef—who has been dazzling audiences with his acting chops and his action moves for two decades. He’ll receive the festival’s top honor, the Screen International Star Asia Award, co-presented with the generous support of Hong Kong Economic and Trade Office in New York (HKETONY). In Herman Yau’s explosive new thriller, Customs Frontline, Tse is a powder-keg customs officer caught in a deadly web of arms smuggling. Tse will present the North American premiere of the film, which also marks his debut as action choreographer.   

Screen International Rising Star Asia Award winner Lee Hye-ri will take the stage to receive her award and present the NYAFF opening film, Victory. She first burst onto the scene as a member of the K-pop group Girl’s Day, but she has been making waves in the acting world since her debut in 2012. Her first leading film role was in the period action horror Monstrum, which won the audience award at the Sitges Film Festival in 2018.

Best from the East Award honoree Kento Yamazaki headlines the thunderous newest chapter of Shinsuke Sato’s globally acclaimed Kingdom franchise, Kingdom: Return of the Great General, a maelstrom of clashing swords, deafening cavalry charges, and Machiavellian court intrigue. Yamazaki is magnetic as the ascendant warrior Shin, cementing the young actor’s status as a bona fide superstar. ​​Yamazaki made his acting debut in 2010 and quickly worked his way to the top of the box office, proving his staggering versatility in a range of roles, including Arisu in the Netflix series Alice in Borderland, whose third season is shooting soon.

Legendary Hong Kong actor Tai Bo, this year’s Star Asia Lifetime Achievement Award honoree, has turned in luminous performances in many of the biggest recent Hong Kong hits: The Brink (NYAFF 2017), Hand Rolled Cigarette (NYAFF 2020), The Silent Forest (NYAFF 2020), and Coffin Homes (NYAFF 2021). Beginning his career in Hong Kong at the age of 18, Tai Bo initially worked behind the scenes in various capacities before transitioning into an award-winning acting career. Tai Bo will join us for Ray Yeung’s Berlin Teddy Award-winning All Shall Be Well and his landmark 2015 film Twilight’s Kiss (Suk Suk), as well as for the world premiere of Chow Kam Wing’s For Alice.

The recipient of the 2024 Daniel A. Craft Award for Excellence in Action Cinema is Japan’s own enfant terrible of the hit man–comedy genre, Yugo Sakamoto. This action wunderkind, winner of numerous awards for his ultra-high-octane flicks, will be joining executive producer Yusuke Suzuki to present the world premiere of the adrenaline-fueled extravaganza, Baby Assassins: Nice Days. Sakamoto, along with action maestro Kensuke Sonomura, has cranked the dial up to 11 for the latest chapter in this killer series.

Additional titles in NYAFF’s Hong Kong lineup include the action-packed, heart-tugging drama from Ip Man screenwriter Chan Tai-Lee, Fight for Tomorrow, about a reformed gangster and repentant father (Patrick Tam) on a go-for-broke journey to reclaim a brighter tomorrow; and The Lyricist Wannabe, the new film from Norris Wong (My Prince Edward, NYAFF 2019), a dynamic ode to chasing one’s dream in the cutthroat music industry. 

A series of dazzling debuts from China have been added to the lineup, including Gao Peng’s A Long Shot, a scandalous take on the human toll of ’90s economic reform; Lin Jianjie’s Brief History of a Family, a stunning psycho-thriller that slices open the façade of post-one-child-policy China; Liang Ming’s Carefree Days, a poignant exploration of resilience in the face of despair; Li Kuo and Shan Dandan’s Galaxy Writer, a hilarious, postmodernist deconstruction of screenwriting; and Marc Ma’s Wolf Hiding, an action extravaganza pitting an evil conglomerate against a lone-wolf assassin. Plus, the late, great Pema Tseden’s (Jinpa, NYAFF 2019) fantastical final masterwork, Snow Leopard, brings a metaphorical/metaphysical clash on the Tibetan steppe. 

Treasures from Southeast Asia show this region is redefining genres. First-time feature filmmaker Nelicia Low will debut her thriller Pierce, inspired by a true story on the Taipei subway and her relationship with her autistic brother, starring Golden Horse Award winner Ding Ning, Taipei Film Festival honoree Tsao Yu-Ning, and breakout talent Liu Hsiu-Fu.

Gems from the Philippines include: Granny Prostitutes, a rousing ensemble piece following aging courtesans who swear like sailors but maintain their dignity against all odds; The Missing, an animated masterpiece that explores harrowing themes as a young man attempts to overcome his trauma or completely lose himself; and When This Is All Over, a kaleidoscopic stoner comedy set during the COVID lockdown that’s equal parts hilarious and poignant, with director Kevin Mayuga in New York to present the North American premiere of this mind-bending masterpiece.

From Indonesia, Respati is an organically creepy tale of vengeful witches, folk magic curses, supernatural serial killings, and adolescent dream warriors. From Malaysia, Adrian Teh’s Reversi is a tender love story slash cautionary tale that explores just how far a man would go if given the opportunity to rewrite the past. And from Mongolia comes the remarkable directorial debut City of Wind, which follows a 17-year-old shaman living near Ulaanbaatar, who is smitten by a young client and sets off on a bittersweet journey of emotional, cultural, and spiritual discoveries.

From Korea, an addition to the Prime Picks – South Korea section is Lee Jong-Pil’s action thriller Escape, following the struggles of a North Korean sergeant attempting to defect while being chased by a ruthless major.

Oscar-nominated Taiwanese American director Sean Wang brings his Sundance hit Dìdi (弟弟) to New York. This captivating dramedy about a young teen who spends his California summer chasing a girl (sort of), ruining friendships, fighting with his mom (Joan Chen), and discovering his calling is a testament to the power of diverse voices and authentic storytelling, one that proves that Asian American stories are American stories, and deserve to be told on the big screen.

NYAFF’s classics section includes two standout restorations of transcendent works: Vietnamese American director Tony Bui’s Three Seasons sets three transcendent stories in postwar Ho Chi Minh City, in a 4K restoration never before screened in New York; and straight from this year’s Cannes, the 40th anniversary 4K restoration of Tsui Hark’s romantic comedy Shanghai Blues follows the fated-to-be-together Shu (Sylvia Chang) and Tung (Kenny Bee) as they meet in wartime and then fail to recognize one another when their paths cross again 10 years later. 

Along with the many major names already mentioned, NYAFF is delighted to welcome many creative forces from across Asia and the diaspora to meet the audience in New York, including actors Jake Choi and James Chen, who are reuniting to present their 2015 film Front Cover, Filmmaker in Focus Ray Yeung’s evocative tale of love, identity, and cultural collision. Japanese director Nobuhiro Yamashita (Linda, Linda, Linda; La La La at Rock Bottom) will make an all-too-rare appearance to present his spirited new musical, Let’s Go Karaoke!; NYAFF stalwart Kazuya Shiraishi (Twisted Justice, The Blood of Wolves) will return for the first time since 2016 with his first-ever jidaigeki, Bushido; and producer and special effects director Daisuke Sato will share tales of making the “first and last film” by 88-year-old Keizo Murase, the legendary kaiju suit maker, stuntman, and tokusatsu wizard.

A  jury composed of filmmaker Patrick Chen, actor Perry Yung, and academic Zhang Zhen will be in attendance to select the award winners from among NYAFF’s greatly expanded Shorts Showcase selections, which now comprise four thematically organized programs. Shorts Program 1: The Animals That Therefore We Are highlights seven superlative shorts exploring and reconfiguring the relationship between humankind and animals, with a lineup that includes The Horse, starring Taiwanese singer-songwriter-actress Mavis Fan (The Flying Swords of Dragon Gate); Bottle George, from Oscar-nominated director Daisuke ‘Dice’ Tsutsumi (The Dam Keeper) and cowriter Akihiro Nishino (Poupelle of Chimney Town); and The Boys and the Donkey, executive produced by Tibetan auteur Pema Tseden (Snow Leopard).

Shorts Program 2: Echoes of Her Longing features six dynamic works that expand the boundaries of Asian female representation on the silver screen, including the international premiere of On a Boat, starring Kiyohiko Shibukawa (Wheel of Fortune and Fantasy) and Ryo Matsuura (December). Shorts Program 3: Ode to Youth boasts seven formally innovative shorts that offer unique perspectives on different facets of youth culture in China, with a lineup that includes the Berlin award winner A Summer’s End Poem and Fire of Last Night in Yimi’s Woods, with original music by Hualun (An Elephant Sitting Still). Shorts Program 4: Defiance Redefined, highlights six Korean and Korean diasporic short films featuring unorthodox characters taking bold moves to rewrite their destinies. The lineup includes Seoul Switch, starring Korean American singer-songwriter Kevin Woo, and Layover, starring Young Mazino (Beef).

NYAFF will celebrate Opening Night on July 12 with its iconic Opening Night Market, featuring live music and Asian food stalls serving scrumptious delights. The popular Matsuri Night event takes place July 23, with screenings of Japanese films, Japanese music, and Japanese delicacies.

There will also be essential panel discussions on filmmaking in Thailand, the status of U.S. distribution of Asian films, and crafting short films, with leading filmmakers and industry members on hand to share their experiences in the film industry and offer insights into their creative processes (participants to be announced).

Closing Night will conclude this year’s festival with celebrities walking the red carpet before an awards ceremony and the North American premiere of Twilight of the Warriors: Walled In, Soi Cheang’s adrenaline-fueled paeon to the glory days of Hong Kong action cinema. As previously announced, producer John Chong and actor Philip Ng will be in attendance for a rousing closing to NYAFF 2024.

The New York Asian Film Festival is co-presented by the New York Asian Film Foundation and Film at Lincoln Center. 

NYAFF is curated by executive director Samuel Jamier, associate director Claire Marty, programmers David Wilentz, Karen Severns, Koichi Mori, Thailand expert Donsaron Kovitvanitcha and China Region Consultant Dana Fukazawa; the short film program is curated by Elliot Gong.

(Please note the program is still subject to change.)

Victory | dir. Park Beom-su, South Korea, 2024 | World Premiere

Victory. 2024 Copyright ⓒMindmark & Annapurna Films All Rights Reserved

The Killers | dir. Lee Myung-Se, Chang Hang-jun, Kim Jong-kwan, Roh Deok, South Korea, 2024 | World Premiere

The Killers. ©Studio Bill

Twilight of the Warriors: Walled In | dir. Soi Cheang, Hong Kong, 2024 | North American Premiere

Twilight of the Warriors: Walled In. Courtesy of Well Go USA.

Films about characters confronting new cultures

©2024 “18×2 Beyond Youthful Days” Film Partner

18×2 Beyond Youthful Days | dir. Michihito Fujii, Japan/Taiwan, 2024 | North American Premiere
A Balloon’s Landing | dir. Angel Teng, Taiwan, Hong Kong, 2024 | International Premiere
Fly Me to the Moon | dir. Sasha Chuk, Hong Kong, 2023 | North American Premiere
Salli | dir. Lien Chien-Hung, Taiwan, 2023 | East Coast Premiere
The Time of Huan Nan | dir. Leading Lee, Taiwan, 2023 | International Premiere

Films that captivate, comfort, and cheer

Breaking and Re-Entering .© 2024 Wow momentum Co., Ltd.

90 Years Old – So What? | dir. Tetsu Maeda, Japan, 2024 | North American Premiere
Breaking and Re-entering | dir. Leo Wang, Taiwan, 2024 | North American Premiere
Kingdom: Return of the Great General | dir. Shinsuke Sato, Japan, 2024 | International Premiere
Let’s Go Karaoke! | dir. Nobuhiro Yamashita, Japan, 2023 | North American Premiere
Love Lies | dir. Ho Miu-ki, Hong Kong, 2024 | North American Premiere
The Yin Yang Master Zero | dir. Shimako Sato, Japan, 2024 | North American Premiere


All Shall Be Well .©2023 Mise_en_Scene_film production

All Shall Be Well | dir. Ray Yeung, Hong Kong, 2024 | East Coast Premiere
Front Cover | dir. Ray Yeung, U.S., 2024 | Special Screening
Twilight’s Kiss | dir. Ray Yeung, Hong Kong, 2019 | Special Screening 

Films grounded in the lives of those in marginalized communities, with narratives that examine pressing issues

The Cursed Land. ©Neramitnungfilm 2024

Granny Prostitutes | dir. Joel Lamangan, Philippines, 2024 | North American Premiere
Old Fox | dir. Hsiao Ya-Chuan, Taiwan, 2023 | East Coast Premiere
The Cursed Land | dir. Panu Aree, Thailand, 2024 | North American Premiere

Innovative new work that tweaks and twists genre conventions

Pattaya Heat.©Wanderer Pictures

Baby Assassins: Nice Days | dir. Yugo Sakamoto, Japan, 2024 | World Premiere
Brush of the God | dir. Keizo Murase, Japan, 2024 | International Premiere
Customs Frontline | dir. Herman Yau, Hong Kong, 2023 | North American Premiere
Fight for Tomorrow | dir. Chan Tai-Lee, Hong Kong, 2024 | U.S. Premiere
Inexternal | dir. Yuen Kim-Wai, Hong Kong, 2024 | World Premiere
Operation Undead | dir. Kongkiat Komesiri, Thailand, 2024 | World Premiere
Pattaya Heat | dir. Yang Shupeng, Thailand, 2024 | North American Premiere
Respati | dir. Sidharta Tata, Indonesia, 2024 | North American Premiere
The Guest | dir. Yeon Je-gwang, South Korea, 2023 | North American Premiere
The Sin | dir. Han Dong-seok, South Korea, 2023 | North American Premiere
Wolf Hiding | dir. Marc Ma, China, 2024 | North American Premiere

Focusing on the top films of the year from one country, both from a popular and critical standpoint

The Roundup: Punishment

12.12: The Day | dir. Kim Seong-su, South Korea, 2023 | Special Screening
Escape | dir. Lee Jong-pil, South Korea, 2023 | Special Screening
Exhuma | dir. Jang Jae-hyun, South Korea, 2023 | Special Screening
The Roundup: Punishment | dir. Heo Myeong-haeng, South Korea, 2024 | Special Screening

Highlighting emerging voices and promising works by up-and-coming directors

Didi. Courtesy of Focus Features / Talking Fish Pictures LLC © 2024 All Rights Reserved.

A Long Shot | dir. Gao Peng, China, 2024 | North American Premiere
Carefree Days | dir. Liang Ming, China, 2024 | North American Premiere
City of Wind | dir. Lkhagvadulam Purev-Ochir, Mongolia, 2024 | New York Premiere
Dìdi (弟弟) | dir. Sean Wang, U.S., 2024 | New York Premiere
For Alice | dir. Chow Kam Wing, Hong Kong, 2024 | World Premiere
Galaxy Writer | dir. Li Kuo, Shan Dandan, China, 2023 | North American Premiere
The Lyricist Wannabe | dir. Norris Wong, Hong Kong, 2024 | New York Premiere
Not Friends | dir. Atta Hemwadee, Thailand, 2023 | North American Premiere
Pierce | dir. Nelicia Low, Taiwan/Singapore, 2023 | North American Premiere
When This Is All Over | dir. Kevin Mayuga, Philippines, 2024 | North American Premiere 


Three Seasons. Courtesy of Focus Features

Shanghai Blues | dir. Tsui Hark, Hong Kong, 2024 | Special Screening
Three Seasons | dir. Tony Bui, Vietnam, 2024 | Special Screening


Habit. Courtesy of Lionsgate

Finding Bliss: Fire and Ice | dir. Kim Chan, Dee Lam, Hong Kong, 2022 | Special Screening
Habit (International Version) | dir. Janell Shirtcliff, U.S., 2021 | North American Premiere
Onpaku | dir. Shogo Fujii, Japan/Hong Kong, 2022 | New York Premiere

Exceptional films, regardless of premiere status

Snow Leopard.© Mani Stone Pictures

Be With Me | dir. Hwarng Wern Ying, Taiwan, 2023 | East Coast Premiere
Brief History of a Family | dir. Lin Jianjie, China, 2024 | New York Premiere
Bushido | dir. Kazuya Shiraishi, Japan, 2024 | North American Premiere
Gold Boy | dir. Shusuke Kaneko, Japan/China, 2023 | North American Premiere
Snow Leopard | dir. Pema Tseden, China, 2024 | New York Premiere

Original films that break away from formalistic and/or narrative conventions

The Missing. © Project 8 Projects

FAQ | dir. Kim Da-min, South Korea, 2023 | North American Premiere
Reversi | dir. Adrian Teh, Malaysia, 2024 | North American Premiere
Supposed | dir. Thanakorn Pongsuwan, Thailand, 2023 | North American Premiere
The Missing | dir. Carl Joseph E. Papa, Philippines, 2024 | East Coast Premiere
The Tenants | dir. Yoon Eun-Kyung, South Korea, 2023 | North American Premiere


Frankenstein Father. ©Korean Academy of Film Arts(KAFA)

Frankenstein Father | dir. Choi Jea-young, South Korea, 2024 | International Premiere
How to Make Millions Before Grandma Dies | dir. Pat Boonnitipat, Thailand, 2024 | North American Premiere
Ichiko | dir. Akihiro Toda, Japan, 2024 | North American Premiere
Snow in Midsummer | dir. Chong Keat Aun, Malaysia, Taiwan, Singapore, 2024 | U.S. Premiere
Suffocating Love | dir. Liao Ming-yi, Taiwan, 2024 | North American Premiere
The Escaping Man | dir. Wang Yichun, China, 2024 | International Premiere
Trouble Girl | dir. Chin Chia-Hua, Taiwan, 2024 | North American Premiere
Women from Rote Island | dir. Jeremias Nyangoen, Indonesia, 2024 | North American Premiere

SHORTS PROGRAM 1: The Animals That Therefore We Are (7)

The Boys and the Donkey. © Tsering Yangjyab

A Snail Without Shell | dir. Mohin Rakhaine, Bangladesh, 2024 | International Premiere
Bottle George | dir. Daisuke ‘Dice’ Tsutsumi, Japan, 2024 | East Coast Premiere
Fish Boy | dir. Christopher Yip, Canada, 2024 | New York Premiere
Hot Seat | dir. Johmar Damiles, Philippines, 2024 | International Premiere
Save My Soul | dir. Leung Kam Fai, Hong Kong/Nepal, 2024 | North American Premiere
The Boys and the Donkey | dir. Tsering Yangjyab, China, 2024 | International Premiere
The Horse | dir.  Lan Yi-Tzu, Taiwan, 2024 | North American Premiere

SHORTS PROGRAM 2: Echoes of Her Longing (6)

A Karaoke Space Odyssey. University of Southern California

A Karaoke Space Odyssey | dir. Achim Mendoza, Philippines/U.S., 2024 | East Coast Premiere
Cross My Heart and Hope To Die | dir. Sam Manacsa, Philippines, 2024 | New York Premiere
Don’t F*ck with Ba | dir. Sally Trần, U.S., 2024 | World Premiere
Let | dir. Alyssa Loh, U.S., 2024 | East Coast Premiere
On a Boat | dir. Heso, Japan, 2024 | International Premiere
White Butterfly | dir. Catherine T. Nguyen, Vietnam, 2024 | East Coast Premiere

SHORTS PROGRAM 3: Ode to Youth (7)

When a Rocket Sits on a Launch Pad. Bohao Liu

A Summer’s End Poem | dir. Lam Can-zhao, China/Switzerland/Malaysia, 2024 | North American Premiere
Fire of Last Night in Yimi’s Woods | dir. Yue Yue Niao, China/U.S., 2024 | World Premiere
Now.Here | dir. Zhao Hao, China, 2024 | North American Premiere
Present Tense | dir. Guan Haotian, China, 2024 | North American Premiere
Shape of the Elephant | dir. Sam Kuwa, China/Japan, 2024 | North American Premiere
Something Blue | dir. Li Chen, China, 2024 | World Premiere
When a Rocket Sits on the Launch Pad | dir. Liu Bohao, China/U.S., 2024

SHORTS PROGRAM 4: Defiance Redefined (6)

Children of Light

Children of Light | dir. Kang Min-kyu, South Korea/U.S., 2024
Layover | dir. Taylor Sanghyun Lee, U.S., 2024 | East Coast Premiere
Peeper | dir. Han Chang-lok, South Korea, 2024 | North American Premiere
Pushup | dir. Ryu Ho-cheol, South Korea, 2024 | International Premiere
Seoul Switch | dir. Liann Kaye, U.S., 2024 | East Coast Premiere
The Killing Line | dir. Kim Kyu-jin, South Korea, 2024 | International Premiere


Tickets for the 23rd edition of the New York Asian Film Festival go on sale June 20 at 2pm ET, with early access to FLC screenings for FLC Members beginning June 20 at 12pm ET. FLC tickets are $19 for General Public; $17 for students, seniors (62+), and persons with disabilities; and $14 for FLC Members. 

See more at FLC and save with a 3+ Film Package ($17 for General Public; $14 for students, seniors (62+), and persons with disabilities; and $12 for FLC Members. Note: Opening Night and premium events are excluded.

Opening Night tickets for Victory are $25 for the General Public and $20 for FLC Members, students, seniors, and persons with disabilities. Those who wish to attend the Opening Night screening and the Night Market can get tickets for $50 for the General Public and $40 for FLC Members, students, seniors, and persons with disabilities.

Premium events include Customs Frontline and Kingdom: Return of the Great General. Premium event tickets are $25 for the General Public and $20 for FLC Members, students, seniors, and persons with disabilities.

For additional information, please visit Film at Lincoln Center at For ticketing information for screenings at SVA Theatre and LOOK Cinemas, visit Follow us on social media @filmlinc and @nyaff.